The Broadcasting service is a communication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. The sound broadcasting service involves the broadcasting of sound which may be accompanied by associated text/data.The Broadcasting service is a communication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. The sound broadcasting service involves the broadcasting of sound which may be accompanied by associated text/data.
Sound broadcasting is currently deployed in Ghana using analogue transmission techniques: Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM). Over the last two decades, AM sound broadcasting has faded, leaving FM radio as the only form of sound broadcasting in Ghana.
FM radio broadcasting stations are classified for the purpose of regulatory administration of the service towards the attainment of efficient use of frequency. The following is the classification of FM radio broadcasting stations in Ghana.
(1) CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE:
a) Public - all stations owned and operated by the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) and/or any other station established by the Government of Ghana by a statutory enactment.
b) Public Foreign - stations established by Foreign Governments through diplomatic arrangements to rebroadcast/relay content from foreign countries e.g. BBC, RFI, VoA.
c) Commercial - those that are privately owned and operated for profit and controlled privately by independent commercial groups or individuals.
d) Community - a non-profit broadcasting service provided for a specific marginalised community by a radio or television station whose ownership and management are representative of the community for which the service is provided.
e) Campus - a station operated within the ambit of educational institutions
(2) COVERAGE CLASSIFICATION:
a) Commercial and Public Foreign FM - Maximum coverage radius is 45km for Commercial and Public Foreign FM radio broadcasting stations. Click on Commercial to know more about commercial radio.
b) Community and Campus FM - Maximum coverage radius for Community and Campus FM radio broadcasting stations is 5km. In cases where the definition of the community and the terrain require a variation, the Authority shall make extensions to the coverage area but this shall not exceed 25km in any case. Read more about community radio here
c) Public FM - There is no coverage limitation on the Public FM radio broadcasting stations. Click on Public to read about public radio.
d) The signal strength at the periphery of the coverage circle/contour with the authorised radius shall not exceed 54 dB(µV/m). This does not mean the station cannot be heard beyond the circle/contour, because the ITU Recommendation BS.412-9 gives a field strength requirement of 34 dBμV/m for ‘acceptable’ service. The Geneva 1984 Agreement governing Sound Broadcasting services in the frequency band 87.5 – 108 MHz sets the field strength of 54 dB(V/m) as the threshold for coordination of the FM radio broadcasting service in the frequency band.